It has been observed that non compliance of proper specification during construction results in failure of structures.
- The type of foundation suitable for the building on the proposed site is to be decided only after conducting the soil test and getting the opinion of the experts. This is not usually done in many cases.
- Initial levels for filling or cutting not recorded.
- The foundation base is not levelled by concrete except in the case of rock beds.
- Shoring and strutting is not done to prevent collapse of sides of foundation in weak soil.
- When horizontal expansion is done for a building, the new construction should not be bonded with old and the two to be separated by expansion joint right from bottom to top. No excavation below the foundation level of old building should be made. In case of framed structure, twin columns can be provided with a combined footing and the footing will be done along with old building.
- Black cotton soil/ Shrinkable clay which swell and shrink are extremely crack prone and for such type of soil, special type of foundation like under- reamed piles are to be provided and the bulb of the pile is to be taken to a depth, which is not much affect by moisture variation.