Important points for civil engineers
- Height of parapet wall should be = 1 m.
- Thickness of DPC is = 2.5 cm.
- Height of building = 3.15m.
- Height of window = 2.1 m.
- One bag of cement = 1.25 ft3
- Weight of one cement bag is = 50 kg.
- Minimum thickness of slab = 125 mm(5")
- No. of cement bags/m3 = 28.8 bags
- Lintel thickness = 15 mm
- Lintel is provided @ 2.4 m in case of brick wall.
- Minimum diameter of bars used in slab = 8 mm.
- Minimum diameter of bars used in column = 12mm.
- Minimum diameter of bars used in dowels =12mm
- Maximum diameter of bars in slab = ( 1/8) x thick of slab
- Maximum chair spacing = 1 meter
- Dimensional tolerance of cube = + 2 mm
- Maximum water absorption of first class brick = 15 % of its dry weight
- Initial setting time of cement = 30 min
- Final setting time of cement = 10 hours
- DPR = Detailed Project Report
- Unit weight:
- RCC = 25 kn/m3 = 25000 N/m3
- PCC = 24 kn/m3 = 24000 N/m3
- Steel = 7850 kg/m3
- Brick = 1600 kg/m3 = 16 kn/m3
- Soil = 1800 kg/m3 = 18 kn/m3
- 1 Gallon = 3.78 liters
- Minimum no. of bars
- For square columns = 4 bars
- For circular columns = 6 bars
- Standard sand in India is obtained from Ennore Tamil Nandu.
- 1 Yard = 3 feet
- Weight of steel = D2/162.2 kg/m or D2/533 kg/ft
- Size of concrete testing cube = 150 mm x 150 mm x 150mm
- Concrete cube is filled in 3 layers.
- Slump cone is filled in 4 layers.
- Cement should be used with in the 3 months of manufacturing.
- Minimum thickness of shear wall = 150 mm.
- Maximum thickness of shear wall = 400 mm.
- (UTM) Universal testing machine is used for compression test of concrete & tensile test of steel reinforcement.
- Minimum curing period:
- 7 days - Normal weather condition
- 10 days - Dry and hot weather condition
- Minimum percentage of steel in column = 0.8 % of gross area
- Maximum percentage of steel in column = 6 % of gross area
- Footing = 50mm
- column = 40 mm
- slab = 20mm
- beam = 25 mm
Air voids left in concrete is called as Honey Combing.The transverse reinforcement of column are called ties.The transverse reinforcement in beam are called stirrups.Minimum hook length =9D, example 9x 10 mm = 90mmNo. of bricks in m3 = 500 bricksNo. of bricks in 230 mm brick wall in 1 cubic meter = 496 bricks (including wastage)No. of bricks in 115 mm thick wall for 1 square meter = 56 bricks8- 12 kg of binding wire is used per metric tonne of steel.Cement ingredients are burnt @ 1400degree c temp.1BHK stands for 1 Bedroom , 1Hall, 1 kitchen.Short columns fail in crushingLong column fail in bucklingIntermediate column can fail both in crushing and buckling.Tensile strength of concrete = 0.7(sqrt(fck)), fck = 20 N/mm2Modulus of elasticity of concrete =EC = 5000 sqrt(fck), fck =10,20,25,30 N/mm2Characteristic compression strength of concrete :
- Compass = 30' (30minutes)
- Dump Level =5 mm
- Auto level = 5mm
- Theodolite = 20" (20 seconds)
Ordinary concrete M10 = M20Standard concrete M25 = M55High strength concrete M60 = M80In mixer machine concrete should be mix for 2-3 minuteStorage of cement:
- 150mm size cube tested @ 28 days (fck)
- Strength of concrete below which not more than 5 % of test results are expected to fail.
Water absorption for bricks 1st class should be less than 20 percent.Water absorption is less than 5 percent for the building stones.Factor of safety for steel = 1.15Factor of safety for concrete = 1.5Young modulus of steel, ES = 2x 105 N/mm2Types of steel
- Cement should be stored in dry places.
- 200 mm away from floor (in a platform)
- 300 mm away from walls.
- Not more than 10 bags stocked.
- Away from the moisture of chemicals.
- Mild steel Fe250 N/mm2
- HYSD (High steel strength deformed bars)
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