Saturday, August 06, 2016

Chandigarh International Airport

Total land 305 acres.

Key Features of New Airport Infrastructure for Economic Sustainability:

  • Strategic location
  • Apron & link taxi track
  • Boundary wall
  • Electrically operated automated trolley gate 100 m wide
  • Substation equipment
  • Baggage handling system
  • Apron edge light and high mast light
  • Passenger boarding bridge
  • Interior work & art work
  • Airport systems (HHDM, DFMD, X Rays)


  • The largest airport infrastructure of North India (after Delhi). Created on schedule without anytime and cost overruns, the project is an amalgamation of various packages like huge civil infrastructure in combination with electrical works, HVAC, fire fighting, fire alarm, BMS & EMS, PA system, FIDS,etc. a perfect management and contract management.
  • Achievement also include, complete compliance of performance on MoU parameters withthe Ministry of Govt. of India.

Construction Technology Adopted

  • Project management software used (MS Project) for monitoring and resource planning.
  • Two huge tower cranes erected for speedy construction.
  • Two Batching plants with 4 Silos erected at the site.
  • Quality lab set up onsite.
  • 9 Transit Mixers used.
  • Three concrete pumps.
  • One boom Liftconcrete used.
  • 4 manlifters up to 30m height used along with sufficient scissor lifts.
  • Several cranes and Hydra lifters used on site.
  • RMC from outside along withinternal resources used.
  • 30 m height platform constructed for roofing works.
  • 150 tonne capacity cranes used for lifting huge MS structure.
  • In- house designes and fabricated derrick used for lifting and erecting trusses.

Environmental Impact Mitigation Measures:

  • Non polluting construction environment created during construction as per GRIHA norms.
  • Continuous spraying of water on dusted roads and construction area. 
  • All the trees in construction area protected by barricades.
  • An additional 1000 trees planted along the boundary wall. 
  • DG sets with acoustic enclosure used during construction.
  • All waste collection points identified.
  • Jute bags used for curing of concrete.

Wheel washing facility provided at gate to minimise the impact of construction zone.

Deployment of Green Technology & Solar Plant

  • This is the first airport in North India to become self sufficient in energy after completion of solar plant of 3 MW in 2016.
  • A 4 star GRIHA rating for green intiative awarded

Environment Friendly Material used 

  • Flyash brciks- around 55 lakhs
  • Double insulated roofing system
  • DGU & high performance glasses
  • Skylights for use of maximum daylight
  • Low VOC paints
  • Cavity Walls
  • Energy efficient chillers with 6.3 COP for HVAC
  • Energy efficient gearless motor for elevators.
  • VFDS for high capacity motors
  • LED type electrical fixtures,
  • 600 KLD STP plant installed for treating sewage and waste water.
  • Treated water from STP plant will be used for HVAC, Flushing, gardening etc.
  • Rain water harvesting wells.
  • Sensor based plumbing fitting for water conservation. 
  • All electrical motor are of energy efficiency class-1.


  • Treated water from STP plant will be used for HVAC, flushing, gardening etc.
  • While rain water harvesting wells will be spread across the storm water drainage system, a sensor based plumbing fitting will be used for water conservation.

Other Highlights

  • Minimum cost of construction as compared to any other airports- Rs 65000 per sq.m.

Tuesday, July 26, 2016


Project Name: Construction of steel super- structure and other ancillary works of rail cum Road Bridge across River Ganga in Patna

Project Owner/ Issuing Authority: East Central Railway 
Project Location: Patna, Bihar

IRCON International Limited, a government of India undertaking, was presented with the Achievement Award in the category of Best Construction Projects at the 8 th Edition of the CIDC Vishwakarwa Award held on March 7, 2016, for its Rail- cum- Road- Bridge across River Ganga, Patna.

Friday, July 22, 2016

India keen to meet Renewable Energy target & reduce its Carbon Footprint. "Gurgaon" : India’s 1st city to be equipped with Smart Grids

A meeting held between Haryana’s Chief Minister Mr. M L Khattar and Power Minister Mr. Piyush Goyal on last Monday, has brought a ray of hope to the residents of Gurgaon. The city is poised to become the 1st city in India to get a full scale Smart Grid installed that would get rid of black outs and permit the consumers to bring down their energy bills by switching to renewable sources of energy available at present. The centre has dedicated a fund of Rs. 273 crores from a total of Rs. 1382 crores essential for the 1st phase.

Gurgaon Smart Grid project will be carried out in 3 phases. The 1st phase will include the old Gurgaon and DLF & South City area. The 2nd phase would cover the new sectors from Sector 58 to Sector 115. And the industrial belt of Manesar will be covered under 3rd phase.

Work completed as per planning, Gurgaon could be the 1st city in India to become carbon free. Gurgaon could pave the path for the entire nation to follow its footsteps and convert all of the country, village by village and city by city to Smart Grids and help the nation switch to renewable energy. This shift from carbon based economy to green economy will have positive impact on both the GDP and health of the nation.

What exactly is Smart Grid?

 Smart Grid can be summarised as an electricity supply network that uses digital communication network technology to identify and respond to local changes in the usage.

Tendon Cable

Segmental Bridge Construction

Sunday, July 17, 2016

3D Paintings as Virtual Speed- Breakers Likely in India

To check rash driving, the government is considering putting up 3D paintings on major highways and busy roads to create virtual speed breakers.

"We are trying out 3D paintings used as virtual speed breakers to avoid unnecessary requirements of speed breakers,"Mr. Gadkari said in a tweet.

The optional illusions are supposed to encourage drivers to slow down automatically. The government ordered removal of all speed breakers from highways, which are considered to be safety hazard for high- speed vehicles.

Thursday, July 07, 2016

Future roads may contain 100 % more pig poop

A team of researchers at North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University is testing a substance made from pig manure to use as an asphalt binder to replace petroleum-based products, according to a report by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Civil Engineer Ellie Fini and partners, with support from the NSF, has created a product that costs 56 cents per gallon to process and is holding up to “rigorous” testing.

Saturday, May 07, 2016

Calculation of UDL for 9" thk wall on beam for Staadpro?

Thickness of 9" thk wall is 230 mm= 0.23 m
Brick Density be 18 Kn/m3
Wall Height = 825mm =0.825 m (Note: here exclude depth of beam, it is being consider in properties of beam).

Uniformly distributed load for beam = 0.23 * 0.825 *18 = 3.42 Kn/m

Thursday, April 21, 2016

How to add Google Analytics to your blog to see how visitors interact ?

First login to

Than go to settings . Under settings there is other option. In this you will find Google Analytics at the bottom.
There you have to enter your google analytic code.

Now how to see google analytic code?

Login to your google analytic account.
Go to Admin option.
There you will find property setting. There is Tracking Id copy that and paste in your setting.

Friday, March 04, 2016

K-Lite Polar Lighting Poles

K-Lite surface mounted  Polar Lighting Pole, integrated with LED Lighting Module, is the exclusive choice of designers for city beautification- lighting blended with an architectural appeal. It is designed for a complete range of contemporary designs with a single arm, double arm, L-arm, V-arm, Square arm Parallel arm.
                                              The pole is engineered to meet the adverse conditions and the pole sections are duly welded using special grooving techniques and high end MIG/ TIG welding process. The control box is integral and built- in with service door, locking arrangement and safety chain. The galvanized pole is coated with epoxy zinc phosphate primer and finished using environmentally stable polyurethane based paint.   
                                                   The pole is supplied with necessary foundation hardware's for normal soil condition.         
                                                      The Polar Lighting Pole lighting arms are integrated with the LED modular lighting system, which is environmental friendly under green lighting category. The LED lighting offers more lumens with lesser power consumption. The luminaire is IP 68 protected and the various models were evaluated by an extensive research and understanding of illumination requirements for urban spaces.
                                                               The choices of drivers for LED takes into consideration the harmonic distortion level (not exceeding 10 %) power factor greater than 0.9 and surge protection. The LED modules are individually rated 42 watts. The control gear tray is prewired with terminal connectors, MCB and loop-in-loop-out arrangement and located in the control box, integral with the pole.

(Further detail contact:

Wednesday, March 02, 2016

Tuesday, March 01, 2016

Mobile Crane

Mobile Crane

  • Pick and carry crane

Pick and Carry Crane

  • Truck mounted cranes

  • Truck Mounted Cranes
  • Lorry loader

Knuckle Boom Cranes

Thursday, February 25, 2016

Viewing node and beam numbers in staadpro

To view node and beam number, right click anywhere in drawing area.
Dialog box will appear.
In it choose Labels.

Turn the node points, node numbers and beam numbers on.

Than click OK.
The structure will display node points, node number and beam number.

Sunday, February 14, 2016

Quality Control

In India, with a view to ensure construction quality various bodies formulate guidelines & specifications. Some of the main institutions/ bodies are as under:-
  • Bureau of Indian Standards  - BIS
  • The Indian Roads Congress - IRC

BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standard Act, to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods. The standards are revised periodically, keeping in view the rapid development in field and to bring in further modifications/ improvements in light of experience gained while using the earlier version of the standard. Earlier this was known as "Indian Standards Institution".

The BIS codes give detailed guidelines for:-
  • Material specifications and testing.
  • Construction methods and practices.
  • Soil Investigation
  • Design of RCC including reinforcement detailing from seismic considerations
  • Design Steel structures including welding.

Friday, February 12, 2016

Electrical installations specifications


  • The masonry chamber for earthing should have brick masonry foundation.
  • The chamber should be constructed in such a manner that 40 mm diameter G.I. pipe earth electrode is at the center of the chamber.
  • The pipe electrode should be buried to the correct level such that its top is not less than 20 cm below ground level.


  • Before fixing switch boxes in the wall, the space behind switch boxes should be filled with mortar properly.
  • The height of power plug/ light plug should be kept at least 125 cm above the floor and 30 cms above kitchen platform level.
  • The accessories like bell push, light, control switch, socket, etc. if provided in an area exposed to rain, they should be suitably protected by providing covers.
  • Wires should be drawn in the conduit before plastering.
  • Shock protector unit is to be provided to prevent any untoward happening in the building.
  • The in coming supply of power from the street should be through a cable of adequate size and laid in a pucca cable trench covered with RCC slab.  
  • Installation of MCB-DB is preferable, since it will protect the wire from damage, due to over-loading.
  • All wires between which a difference of potential of 240 volts exists shall be made inaccessible to unauthorized persons or enclosed in a conduit.

Water Supply and Sanitary Installation specification

  • Lead totally inadequate in joints of C.I. pipes.
  • Poor and weak concrete with inadequate reinforcement in water storage tanks.
  • Pipes used are of less thickness/ diameter and not of proper grade / make.
  • Joints in sewer lines not tested.
  • In some cases, C.I. pipes and specialised corner reinforcement are embedded in lime mortar or cement lime mortar or cement lime mortar or lime concrete. This will result in accelerated corrosion of steel. In these cases, only cement concrete 1:2:4 only should be used.

Rehabilitation of Town Hall Shimla

Shimla district it is bounded by two major thrusts :

  • Main Central Thrust (MCT)
  • Main Boundary Fault (MBF)
There are other thrusts presents in region, such as the Jwalamukhi thrusts and the Drang thrust.

Shimla can expect maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 4 meters per second square. Hence Shimla can expect an earthquake of seismic intensity VIII on Modified Mercalli (MM) Intensity Scale.   

Townhall Project was constructed during 1st decade of 20th century and it was a steel frame structure. At that time, steel frame technology was latest technology of that time. This building has withstand all the earthquakes till date, so it should be retrofit for next millenniums.

Detailed investigation was done for settlements, cracks, fissures, seepage and distress.

Dynamic cone penetration test (Dcpt) were conducted at 6 locations in January, 2014. Out of which 3 location were adjacent to Town hall on Ridge road.
Allowable bearing capacity arrived from test was (qa) Net=13 t/ m2 and (qa) Gross = 15.6/m2.

by Mr. Nigam

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Roofing specifications

C.G.S Sheet Roofing:

  • Slope of roof not flatter than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal.
  • In case of roofs having slopes less than 1 vertical to 2.5 horizontal sheets, not joined together at the side laps by galvanized iron bolts and nuts of 25 * 6 mm size, with bitumen and a GI limpet washes.
  • Holes for bolts punched and not drilled from the underside.

ACC Sheet Roofing:

  • The distance between the edge and the holes is less than 40 mm.
  • Roof ladder and planks not used while laying the sheets.
  • Side lap not lay on the side.

 Rain Water Pipes:

  • The pipes used are not of specified size, diameter or weight.
  • M.S. hold clamps not of required shape and size.
  • Clamp hooks not embedded in concrete blocking.
  • Joint not kept for 7 days.

Flooring Specifications

  • Cement concrete flooring not laid within 48 hours of laying of cement concrete sub-base. In case of lime concrete sub- base, cement concrete flooring is to be laid after 7 days and not later than 10 days.
  • Surface of sub - grade is not roughened with steel wire brushes.
  • Cement slurry not applied at 2 kg per sq.m either to sub- grade or to RCC slab before laying the flooring.
  • Concrete of floors not beaten up to get the cream of mortar.
  • Thickness of flooring laid is less than what is specified.
  • Sprinkling the dry cement or mixture of sand and cement to absorb excessive moisture.
  • Curing not done for a minimum of 10 days.
  • Overlapping of edges of panels.
  • Sometimes, tiles/ stones are laid on a bed of dry mortar, this will result in flooring sounding hollow when tapped with a wooden mallet. Some tiles working loose and there may be no bond between the stone/ tiles and the sub- grade or RCC slab.
  •  Finishing slope not properly done especially in kitchen, bathroom and balconies. Sometimes, slope provided in the reverse direction.
  • In case of marble chips flooring, it is not laid between 18 to 24 hours after the laying of under layer.
  • Flooring should confirm to IS: 777 and terrazzo tile flooring confirm to IS: 1237.  

Terrazo Tile Flooring:

  • Thickness of tiles not as specified.
  • Tiles do not have required transverse strength.
  • Thickness of bedding mortar less than 10 mm.
  • Cement slurry not applied @ 4.4 kg/sq.m before laying tiles.
  •  First grinding of tiles not done in factory before delivering at site.

Marble/ Kota Flooring:

  •  Average thickness of bedding should be 20 mm and not less than 12 mm at any place.
  • Cement slurry not applied @ 4.4 kg. Per sq. m. over the bedding mortar before laying stone slabs.
  • Thickness not as specified.

Daddooing/ Skirting:

  • Dadoo not flushed with well wall plaster or not projecting uniformly by 6mm from the wall plaster.
  • Dadoo not laid along with border or adjacent floor panels.
  • The joints in the dadoo/ skirting not kept true and straight in continuation of the line of joints in borders or adjacent panels. 

    Monday, February 08, 2016

    Wood Work Specifications

    • Wood used has cracks.
    • Application of putti is not uniform.
    • Screws are nailed instead of being screwed.
    • Moisture content in wood is more than permissible limits.
    • Hold fasts are directly fixed in wood instead of concreting.

      Brief Specifications for Wood Work: 

      • Frames of joineries may be made of timber. Usually, teak, deodar or rose woods have high demand.
      • They should be treated with preservative and termite resistant chemicals. The finish product should be free from knots, cracks, twists, or, warps.
      • Maximum moisture content in seasoned timber should not exceed 8 % to 14 % depending upon the use and thickness. Details can be referred from IS: 267.
      • The plywood used for panelling of door shutters should be BWR (Boiling water proofing) grade.

      Sunday, February 07, 2016

      Steel work specifications

      • Steel sections with excessive rust.
      • Primary coat is not applied.
      • Welded fillets not well formed and filed.
      • Large gaps between masonry and joinery frames.
      • Finish of steel grills for windows unsatisfactory.

      Brief Specifications for steel work:

      • The ordinary quality of steel designated as SI: 320 conforming to IS: 1977 shall be used for windows frames, door, window bars, grills, steel gates, hand railings etc.
      • The finished material shall reasonably be free from cracks, surface floors lamination's, rough and imperfect edges, excessive rust scaling and pitting.
      • The primer to be applied for steel work is zinc chromate conforming to IS: 104.
      • Welding should be made in the flat position, wherever practicable. The member, which offer the greatest resistance to compression to be welded first.
      • Weld should be free from cracks, discontinuity in welding and should not be undersize, oversize, undercutting or over cutting. The surface of weld should be free from porosity, cavities, burnt or scale.
      • Following inspection and testing should be done.:
      • Visual inspection.
      • Bent testing.
      •  Tensile testing.
      • Magnetic particle radio graphic testing. It should be done as described in IS: 1182.

      Saturday, February 06, 2016

      Staadpro- Generating the model geometry

      • First select add beam option given under geometry icon in menu bar. This will initiate a grid in the main drawing area as shown below.

       The directions of the global axes (X,Y,Z) are represented in the icon in lower left hand corner of the drawing area.

      • Snap Node/ Beam Dialog box appear in the data area on the right side of the screen.

      Linear tab :    is for placing the construction lines perpendicular to one another.
      Radial tab:     it enables construction lines to appear in a spider- web style.
      Irregular tab:  used to create grid lines with unequal spacing that lie on the global planes or on an inclined planes.

      Stone work Specifications

      • Bushing is more than specified (should not project more than 4 cm on exposed face and 1 cm on the face to be plastered).
      • Stones not wetted before use.
      • Mortar not mixed with mechical mixer.
      • Proper bond between two connected walls not provided.
      • Stones with round surface not to be used.
      • Stones not tested for water absorption.
      • Sand used has more silt content or contains harmful sulphates/ chemicals, fineness modulus not checked.

      Friday, February 05, 2016

      Brickwork Specifications

      • Inadequate soaking of bricks.
      • Strength of brick less than specified.
      • Thickness of joint exceeds 1 cm.
      • Expansion joint not provided.
      • Parapet walls of balconies, landing and staircases are constructed with 7 cms thick brick masonry, in cement mortar. This is an unsafe method as the walls are likely to collapse, due to horizontal force. In these cases, it is necessary to reinforce them. 

       Following steps needs to taken out to avoid defects in brick work:


      • Bricks required for brickwork shall be adequately soaked in stacks before use by spraying with clean water at regular intervals for a period of not less than 6 hrs before use so as to keep them wet.
      • Vertical joints in alternate courses shall come directly one above the other.
      • Work done per day should not be more than 1 m.
      • Horizontal runs of water supply pipes should be avoided in masonry walls.
      • Sometimes, holes are punctured in the staircase walls to support the landing slabs to accommodate the beam over which staircase beam rests. Before doing this, the resisting capacity of brickwork should be checked.
      • Sometimes, openings are made temporarily in load bearing walls to use as entrance from one room to another. This reduces the strength of the wall due to the reduction of the wall area designed for. In case, openings are to be made, the strength of brickwork to resist the load at the bearing is to be checked.
      • Top course of plinth, parapet, steps and top wall not provided with brick on edge.
      • While plastering, joints in masonry works should be racked to provide a good key between plaster and masonry.
      • Whenever masonry partitions have length to height ratio higher than two, horizontal reinforcement is to be provided in the masonry.
      • If sulphate content in soil exceed 0.2% or in ground water exceeds 300ppm, it will attack various components of the building. To prevent this, sulphate resisting cement is used.

      Specifications for Bricks:

      • Size of brick should be 9" * 4.5" * 2.75" or (20* 10 *10 cm).
      • Brick should be free from cracks and nodules of free lime.
      • It should be tested for:
      • Compressive  strength.
      • Water adsorption.
      • Efflorescence.
      • Dimension.

        Thursday, February 04, 2016

        RCC Concrete specifications

        • Concrete in one layer should not be more than 15 cm.
        • Hacking of surface should be done immediately after removal of centering and shuttering.
        • When concrete is placed especially in floors and pavements, solid particles of the ingredients of concrete begin to settle down by gravity action and water rises to surface. This process is known as 'bleeding' it should be ensured that the evaporation of water is lower than the rate of bleeding. This can be achieved by covering the top by wet burlab (a coarse canvas), especially during hot seasons.
        • Shrinkage cracks can be controlled by using temperature reinforcement with about 0.12% (if high strength deformed bars are used, refer clause of IS: 456-2000) of cross sectional area of concrete both horizontally and vertically. It is perferable to use bars of smaller diameters at closed intervals.
        • Curing of concrete should be commenced immediately after the setting has taken place and proper curing should be done for 28 days, but concrete members (slabs/ columns) must be completely immersed in water for at-least 10 days and should be kept wet by repeated spraying for the balance period.
        • For vertical fascias, RCC vertical projections are to be provided and not brick masonry. This applies for sun- shades also. This is to avoid horizontal cracks at the joint between slab surface and the masonry.
        • Catwalk should be provided to prevent disturbance to reinforcement as well as already laid concrete. 

        Tuesday, February 02, 2016

        Concrete Specification

        Non compliance of proper specification during construction results in failure of structures.

        •  Sand contains harmful sulphates/ chemicals, which affect durability of concrete.
        • Silt content present is more than permissible limit.
        • Fineness modulus not checked.
        • Inadequate mixing time.
        • Slump test not performed regularly.
        • Coarse aggregate oversize.
        • Test registers are not maintained. In some cases test are not done and in some other cases tests results are fictitious.
        • Less cement used. Accelerator should be avoided.
        • Beams made to span over larger openings in load bearing walls and in some cases where intermediate support is provided, the support is not tested to resist the compressive strength.
        • Providing reinforcement in conjested manner, making it difficult for concreting conditions. This result in weak pockets, which will permit accelerated corrosion.
        • Bearings of lintel and beams are less than 9 cm or 1/10 the span.
        • All load bearing walls should be provided with lintel band with minimum reinforcement of 2 no. 10 mm diameter tor steel bars, one at each face of the wall with 12 mm cover and 6 mm stirrups and 150 mm cement concrete.
        • Sometimes, the size of beams is out of plumb and buldge out. To avoid this, the bottom plate should be made wider than the finished width of the beam.
        • The top of the side shuttering should be prevented from tilting outwards by provision of inclined wooden struts nailed to the shuttering and bottom plate.
        • The concreting should be done in strips of width 1.5 meters to the length of the unit so that the thickness of the concrete is uniform throughout.
        • Concrete is not laid gently but poured or thrown from a height resulting in segregation.
        • "U" shape ties in pairs may be provided to form a close stirrup with the proper development length taken inside the beam. In such case, development length cannot be provided and "U" shaped ties may be be hooked around reinforcement and bent for 180 degrees and taken for 10 degrees beyond the end of the curve.
        • In case of highly corrosive environment with high sulphate/ chlorine contents in the sub- soil water, anti- corrosive reinforcement or galvanized reinforcement can be used or anti- corrosive coatings can be given.

        Earthwork Specification

        It has been observed that non compliance of proper specification during construction results in failure of structures.

        • The type of foundation suitable for the building on the proposed site is to be decided only after conducting the soil test and getting the opinion of the experts. This is not usually done in many cases.
        • Initial levels for filling or cutting not recorded.
        • The foundation base is not levelled by concrete except in the case of rock beds.
        • Shoring and strutting is not done to prevent collapse of sides of foundation in weak soil.
        • When horizontal expansion is done for a building, the new construction should not be bonded with old and the two to be separated by expansion joint right from bottom to top. No excavation below the foundation level of old building should be made. In case of framed structure, twin columns can be provided with a combined footing and the footing will be done along with old building.
        • Black cotton soil/ Shrinkable clay which swell and shrink are extremely crack prone and for such type of soil, special type of foundation like under- reamed piles are to be provided and the bulb of the pile is to be taken to a depth, which is not much affect by moisture variation.

        Wednesday, January 27, 2016

        Staadpro-Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

        Particular structure is an assembly of components such as beams, columns, slabs, plates etc. Typically, modelling of the structure geometry consists of two steps:


         -Identification and description of joints or nodes.

        -Modelling of members or elements through specification of connectivity between joints.

        Saturday, January 23, 2016

        Infiltration vs Permeability


                           Infiltration refers to the downward entry or movement of water into the soil surface. It is a measure of the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation. It is determine by a soil characteristics including ease of entry, storage capacity, and transmission rate through the soil. 


                              It is measure of ability of a porous material to allow fluid to pass through it. High permeability will allow fluids to move rapidly through rocks. Permeability is affected by the pressure in a rock.

        Sunday, January 17, 2016

        Staadpro-Define Structure type

        First define which type of structure it is:

        Space type:

                         is the structure where the geometry , loading cause the structure to deform in all 3 global axes (X, Y and Z).

        Plane type:

                           is the structure where the geometry , loading and deformation is restricted to global X-Y plane only.

        Tuesday, January 12, 2016

        Concrete vs stone, timber and steel

           Why Concrete is superior to stone, timber and steel ?

          • Stone, timber and steel cant be fit to any mould but concrete can fit to any mould.
          • Structure made of stone, timber and steel have several joints but different element of concrete  can be cast monolithically.

          Friday, January 08, 2016

          Circular Beam

          Why we are not constructing circular beam ?

          In case of beam all the stresses are at top and bottom. Circular area is maximum area at center, where we don't have any bending. To overcome stresses we need to provide steel at top and bottom. but in case of circular beam its not possible to provide steel at top and bottom.

          Retaining wall vs Buttressed retainning wall

          What is the difference between Retaining wall and Buttressed retainning wall ?

          Main difference in buttressed retaining wall is we provide thin slab at some intervals to tie base slab and stem in order to reduce the shear force and bending moment.