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Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Unit Command in Staadpro

UNIT METER KN

The sixth line in editor defines the unit. Above line defines unit is in meter and KiloNewton.

You are allowed to input data and request output in almost all commonly used engineering unit systems including MKS1, SI2, and FPS3. 

In the input file, the user may change units as many times as required. Mixing and matching between length and force units from different unit systems is also allowed. 

The input unit for angles (or rotations) is degrees. However, in JOINT DISPLACEMENT output, the rotations are provided in radians. For all output, the units are clearly specified by the program.

GIS: TYPES OF MAP SCALES






MAPS AND MAP SCALES

Map Scale


The size of earth is too big to be represented as it is on a map. It is the relationship between distance on map and distance on ground that tells what distance on map corresponds to what distance on ground.




Saturday, February 25, 2017

GIS: MAPS AND MAP SCALES

Introduction





A map is a two dimensional representation of earth surface which uses graphics to convey geographical information. It describes the geographical location of features and the relationship between them. Maps are fundamental to society.




Improvements in the fields of Geodesy, Surveying and Cartography helped in bringing the maps to their present form. The digital technology has altered the way of creating, presenting and distributing the geographic information. The conventional cartography is now getting replaced by computer aided designs and graphics, and the analog maps (paper maps) by digital maps. The growing field of technology promises to bring more advances to Cartography to render maps and allied services that serve the society in a better manner.
Source: NPTEL

Monday, February 20, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEER: Application of GIS: Tax Mapping, Business, Logistics, Emergency evacuation, Environment


Application of GIS

These include topographical mapping, socioeconomic and environment modeling, and education. The role of GIS is best illustrated with respect to some of the representative application areas that are mentioned below:




Tax Mapping:

Information about property with its geographical location and boundary is managed by GIS. Querying the GIS database can locate similar type of properties in an area. The characteristics of these properties can then be compared and valuation can be easily done .




Business: 

A GIS with relevant data such as number of consumers, brands and sites they go for shopping can give any business unit a fair idea whether their unit if set up is going to work at a particular location the way they want it to run.

Logistics:

It is necessary for the shipping companies to know where their warehouses should be located, which routes should the transport follow that ensures minimum time and expenditures to deliver the parcels to their destinations. All such logistics decisions need GIS support.

Emergency evacuation: 

It is important to know in which area the risk is higher, the number of individuals inhabiting that place, the routes by which the vehicles would move to help in evacuating the individuals. Thus preparing an evacuation plan needs GIS implementation.

Environment: 

GIS is being increasingly involved in mapping the habitat loss, urban sprawl, land-use change etc. Mapping such phenomena need historical landuse data, anthropogenic effects which greatly affect these phenomena are also brought into GIS domain. GIS models are then run to make predictions for the future.

References
Burrough, P. A & McDonnell, R. A. 1998, Principles of geographical information systems, Oxford University Press, UK.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEER: Introduction TO GIS, Objectives of GIS, Components of GIS

CIVIL ENGINEERING: Introduction TO GIS, Objectives of GIS, Components of GIS


1. INTRODUCTION TO GIS





GIS stands for Geographical Information System. It is defined as an integrated tool, capable of mapping, analyzing, manipulating and storing geographical data in order to provide solutions to real world problems and help in planning for the future. 

Objectives of GIS





Some of the major objectives of GIS are to:

-Maximizing the efficiency of planning and decision making
-Integrating information from multiple sources
-Facilitating complex querying and analysis
-Eliminating redundant data and minimizing duplication
-Components of a GIS

A GIS has following components:

Hardware : It consists of the equipment's and support devices that are required to capture, store process and visualize the geographic information. These include computer with hard disk, digitizers, scanners, printers and plotters etc.

Software : The GIS software must have the basic capabilities of data input, storage, transformation, analysis and providing desired outputs. The interfaces could be different for different software's. ArcGIS by ESRI is the widely used proprietary GIS software. Others in the same category are MapInfo, Microstation, Geomedia etc. The development of open source GIS has provided us with freely available desktop GIS such as Quantum, uDIG, GRASS, MapWindow GIS etc., GIS softwares.

Data : The data is captured or collected from various sources (such as maps, field observations, photography, satellite imagery etc) and is processed for analysis and presentation.

Procedures : These include the methods or ways by which data has to be input in the system, retrieved, processed, transformed and presented.

People : This component of GIS includes all those individuals (such as programmer, database manager, GIS researcher etc.) who are making the GIS work, and also the individuals who are at the user end using the GIS services, applications and tools.

(Source IIT DELHI)

Thursday, February 16, 2017

Lucknow Metro’s 255m Cantilever Bridge Completed

The bridge has been designed with a 105m long central span and two 75m long end-spans, and is the only missing piece of the 8.48 km Transport Nagar – Charbagh ‘priority corridor’ of the 22.878 km north-south line which prevents trial runs from commencing on a 2 km stretch between Mawaiya and Charbagh stations.


Lucknow Metro’s 255m Cantilever Bridge Completed
Add caption




Lucknow Metro’s 255m Cantilever Bridge Completed

Lucknow Metro’s 255m Cantilever Bridge Completed

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEER: How many bricks in 1 m3?

The Standard size of first class brick is 190 mm x 90 mm x 90 mm.
Mortar joint should be 10 mm thick.
So brick with mortar = 200 x 100 x 100.




Volume of first class brick with mortar= 0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1 = 0.002 cu.m
No. of bricks per 1 cu.m = 1/ (volume of first class brick with mortar) = 1/0.002=500 nos of brick.





Monday, February 13, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEER: 1cum cement = how much bag?





Assumptions:

1.Nominal mix is 1:2:4
2.Wastage of cement during handling is considered as :2%.
3.Output from mixer is considered as 67% in volume of the input.
( For getting 1 Cum output , we need dry mix as 1/0.67= 1.49 say 1.50 Cum).
4.Density of cement : 1440 Kg/cum.
   Mass of one bag   = 50kg
   Volume of one bag of cement = 50/1400 =0.035714 m3
    No. of bags in m3                  =1/0.035714 =28 bags

With these assumptions about data , the actual calculations are as follows :
Cement per CuM = 1.52 *28.8 /( 1+2+4 )
= 1.52*28.8/7 = 6.25 Bags

Same formula can be used for calculating cement for other nominal mixes also.
In case you feel that cement is wasted more than 2 % , proceed as under :
Wastage : 5 %
Take the factor of 1.5 +0.05 = 1.55 instead of 1.52 in the above formula.


How to calculate cutting length of Rings of rectangular column?





Example: Consider Rectangular Column 450mm x 300mm having cover to reinforcement 40mm.


 Size of the stirrup on 450mm side= 450-40-40 = 370mm
 Size of the stirrup on 300mm side= 300-40-40 =220mm          

Total cutting length of ring for 8 dia bar = Periphery + hook length.                         
                                                                  =2*370+2*220+2*8*10=1340mm
hook length= 10D


Sunday, February 12, 2017

CIVIL ENGINEER: What type of test should perform for Concrete work...

What type of test should perform for Concrete work?

-Setting time of cement
-Compressive strength of cement
-Gradation of Coarse aggregates.
-FM of fine aggregates.
-Water absorption of coarse aggregates.
-Loss angels abrasion test
-Concrete cylinder casting & testing

What type of test should perform for M.S High strength deform bars?

-Tensile strength, Elongation and unit wt.

What type of test should perform for Brick work?

-Setting time of cement
-Compressive strength of cement
-FM of fine aggregates
-Compressive strength of brick
-Water absorption of brick
-Efflorescence of brick

What type of test should perform for Concrete work, M.S High strength deform bars, Brick work?

What type of test should perform for Concrete work?

-Setting time of cement
-Compressive strength of cement
-Gradation of Coarse aggregates.
-FM of fine aggregates.
-Water absorption of coarse aggregates.
-Loss angels abrasion test
-Concrete cylinder casting & testing






What type of test should perform for M.S High strength deform bars?

-Tensile strength, Elongation and unit wt.


What type of test should perform for Brick work?

-Setting time of cement
-Compressive strength of cement
-FM of fine aggregates
-Compressive strength of brick
-Water absorption of brick
-Efflorescence of brick

CIVIL ENGINEER: Slide- In Bridge Construction

Slide- In Bridge Construction (SIBC)-A Stepping Stone To Broader Use of all Accelerated Bridge Construction Methods


On a Slide- In Bridge Construction (SIBC) project, a new bridge is built on temporary supports, usually parallel to an existing bridge. During construction, traffic continues uninterrupted on the existing bridge. When construction is compleded, the road is closed temporarily. The existing structure is demolished or removed. The new bridge is positioned in place,tied into the approaches, and paved, generally within 72 hours. 
SIBS offers several advantages:
-All the benefits of other ABC technologies.
-Less traffic disruption.
-Greater safety for motorists and construction workers (due primarily to shortened work- zone durations)
- Greater quality and constructability
-Reduced enviornmental impacts from vehicle and construction equipment emissions.
SIBC can eliminate construction joints associated with phased construction, leading to a more durable deck. (Source:http://www.cecr.in/)

Slide- In Bridge Construction

Slide- In Bridge Construction (SIBC)-A Stepping Stone To Broader Use of all Accelerated Bridge Construction Methods






On a Slide- In Bridge Construction (SIBC) project, a new bridge is built on temporary supports, usually parallel to an existing bridge. During construction, traffic continues uninterrupted on the existing bridge. When construction is compleded, the road is closed temporarily. The existing structure is demolished or removed. The new bridge is positioned in place,tied into the approaches, and paved, generally within 72 hours. 
SIBS offers several advantages:
-All the benefits of other ABC technologies.
-Less traffic disruption.
-Greater safety for motorists and construction workers (due primarily to shortened work- zone durations)
- Greater quality and constructability
-Reduced enviornmental impacts from vehicle and construction equipment emissions.

SIBC can eliminate construction joints associated with phased construction, leading to a more durable deck.

(Source:http://www.cecr.in/)

Thursday, February 09, 2017

Dutch Railway Electric trains now run on 100 % Wind energy

A single Dutch Railway line in Netherlands still runs on diesel fuel- but only until the end of this year.  

       The company, working in partnership with all other Dutch rail companies- including freight trains- had planned to source all of its electricity from wind by 2018, but after learning that extra wind power was available on the Dutch market, was able to purchase it earlier. 

              Rather than buying power from existing renewable energy plants, the rail company chose to support newly- built projects. The power is sent into the grid, and the company buys certificate for each megawatt- hour of energy that it uses. Wind power doesn't go directly to the trains, both because that,s not how the infrastructure is set up and because the trains need to pull from the grid for a constant source of power.

"If there is no wind you can run the trains,"says Boon. "There needs to be enough power on the grid always."

(Source: https://www.fastcoexist.com/3067087/madrid-plans-to-ban-cars-from-its-busiest-street)

INDIAN STANDARD CODE IS 456 ONLINE

IS 800

What does IS:875-1987 covers?

This code covers basic design loads to be assumed in the design of buildings, in 5 parts. Each part is discussed here under:-

IS:875-1987(Part-1)- Dead Loads:-

                                                  This part specifies the unit weights of different types of building materials and the stored materials. The dead load in building shall comprise of the weight walls, partitions, floors etc. It is recommended that the load of partition walls, be assessed, by the designer on the basis of the actual constructional details of the proposed partitions.
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IS:875-1987(Part-2)-Imposed Loads:-Imposed loads not only include live loads but also loads like that of machinery etc.

Live loads based on floor usage in various types of buildings.

Reduction in floor live load for design of columns.

Live load on Roofs:-
-Live loads on various types of roofs. 
-Snow load.
-Loads due to Rain.
-Loads on members directly supporting the roof coverings.
-Loads on roof coverings.
-Horizontal loads on parapets

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IS:875-1987(Part-3)- Wind Loads:-

                                            This standard gives wind forces and their effects (static and dynamic) that should be taken into account when designing buildings, structures and components. The effect of wind on the structure as a whole is determined by the combined action of external and internal pressures acting upon it. Wind speed in the atmospheric boundary layer increases with height from zero at ground level to a maximum at a height. This code gives:

Wind map: which gives Basic Maximum Wind speed in m/s (peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about 3 seconds duration). These wind speeds have been worked out for 50 years return period.  
Design Wind Speed(Vz) at any height z depends on the
-Probability factor,
-Terrain, height and structure size factor and
-Topography factor.

Design Wind Pressure: It depends on the:
-Coefficient, which depends on the atmospheric pressure and air temperature.
-Design Wind Velocity.

Off Shore Wind Velocity: Cyclonic storms form far away from the sea coast and gradually reduce in speed as they approach the sea coast.

Modification factors to modify the basic wind velocity to take into account the effect of terrain, local topography, size of structure, are included.

Terrain is classified into four categories based on characteristics of the ground surface irregularities. 

Force coefficients (drag coefficients) are given for frames, lattice towers, walls and hoardings.

The calculation of force on circular sections is included incorporating the effects of Reynolds number and surface roughness.

The external and internal pressure coefficients for gable roofs, lean-to roofs, curved roofs and multi- span roofs have been rationalized.

Pressure coefficients are given for combined roofs, roofs with sky light, circular silos, etc.

Dynamic effect.

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 IS: 875-1987(Part-4)- Snow Loads:

                                             This standard deals with the snow loads on roofs of buildings. Roofs should be designed for the actual snow load due to snow or for the imposed loads specified in Part 2 Imposed Loads. Ground snow load at any place depends on the critical combination of the maximum depth of undisturbed aggregate cumulative snowfall and its average density. Ice loads should be taken into account in the design of over- head contact lines for electric traction, aerial masts.

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IS:875-1987 (Part-5)-Special Loads and Loads Combinations:

The different load combinations to be considered for the design of any structure are:
-DL+LL
-DL+WL
          -DL+IL+WL




                               Where DL indicates dead load , LL indicates live load, WL indicates wind load, IL indicates imposed load and EL indicates earthquake load. While considering earthquake effects, EL is substituted at place of WL. It may be noted here that there will be four cases (one from each direction) due to the effect of WL or EL. For symmetrical structures, the number of cases may be reduced accordingly.


What does IS:456 covers?

IS:456-2000-Plain and Reinforced Concrete for Building Construction:

This is the fourth revision of the standard. The common methods of design and construction of plain or reinforced concrete structures is covered in this code. The code is divided into 5 sections, which detail out various guidelines and specifications.

Section 1: 

                        defines the scope, terminology and symbols.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section 2:

                        explains about materials, workmanship, inspection and testing. It includes types of cement, use of blended cements with mineral admixtures like flyash and ground blast- furnance slag, quality norms on water, admixtures, well defined exposure conditions, grade of concrete, formula for estimation of modulus of elasticity of concrete, durability of concrete, construction  joint etc.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------             

Section 3:

                    tells about general design consideration. It covers methods of design, various loads and load combinations, stability of structure against overturning and sliding, fire resistance requirements, Linear Elastic Theory to calculate internal action produced by design loads, recommendation regarding effective length of cantilever, recommendation for deflection due to lateral loads. According to clause no. 18.2, there are two methods of design (a) Working stress method & (b) Limit state method. Clause 26 gives guidelines for " Requirements governing reinforcement and detailing" wherein maximum and minimum spacing between reinforcement and cover requirements for various exposure conditions is specified.

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Section 4:

                         (Clause 28 to 34) relates o " Special Design Requirements for Structural Member & Systems". Guidelines for Deep Beams, Flat Slabs, Walls, Stairs, Stairs, and footings etc are covered under this section.

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Section 5:

                               (Clause 35 to 43) covers " Strutural Design ( Limit State Method)" in detail. Various limit states including that of flexure, compression, shear, Torsion, Deflection, Cracking etc are discussed.

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Annex B, discusses the requirements of " Working Stress Method".

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Annex D, gives moment coefficients for rectangular slab panels.

 

 

                   

IS: 1893: Design of Earthquake Resistant Structures

This standard is intended for earthquake resistant design of normal structures. It is applicable to buildings, elevated structures, bridges, concrete, embankments and retaining wall. It has been endeavored to ensure that, as far as possible, structures are able to respond, without structural damage to shocks of moderate intensities and without total collapse to shocks of heavy intensities. It takes into account:
a) Seismic zone factor. (Fo)
b) Importance factor, to account for the varying degrees of importance for various structures. (I)
c) The coefficient of Flexibility for design of multi- storeyed building is given in form of a curve with respect to period of buildings.
d) Performance factor depending on the structural framing system and brittleness or ductility of construction.
e) Intensity of shock due to earthquake.
f) The seismic zone map, the object of this map is to classify area of the country into five seismic zones.

Earthquake cause random motion of ground, which can be resolved in any three mutually perpendicular directions. This motion causes the structure to vibrate. The vibration intensity of ground expected at any location depends upon the magnitude of earthquake, the depth of focus, distance from epicenter and the strata on which the structure stands. There might be cases in which structure have less importance factor and relatively small structure for which no analysis need be made. There is Clause in code which gives permissible increase in allowable bearing pressure or resistance of soils. 

Use of IS:13920- 1993

IS:13920- 1993- Detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic forces

This standard covers the requirements for designing and detailing of monolithic reinforced concrete buildings so as to give them adequate toughness and ductility.

Flexural Member

Clause gives the general requirement, which flexural members should satisfy.

a) Longitudinal Reinforcement:


-The top as well as bottom reinforcement shall consist of at least two bars throughout the member length.
- The positive steel at a joint face must be atleast equal to half the negative steel at that face.
- The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face of the member at any section along its length shall be at least equal to one- fourth of the maximum negative moment steel provided at the face of either joint.
- in an external joint, both the top and the bottom bars of the beam shall be provided with anchorage length, beyond the inner face of the column, equal to the development length in tension plus 10 times the bar diameter minus the allowance for 90 degree bend.
- Clause no. 6.2.6 gives about the lap, splice in beam.

IS:5525- Detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete works

This standard deals with the general requirements of detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures.




  • According to it, all reinforcement bars used in structures shall be suitably designated & numbered both in drawing & in schedule.
  • The use of the same type of line for the same purpose considerably enhances the clarity & usefulness of the drawing. 
  • Different structural members of a structure shall be marked using symbols, abbreviations & notations.
  • A key framing plan shall be prepared to a convenient scale & the two axes marked, one side with alphabets A, B, C etc & other with numbers. The same key framing plan may be used for all floors if the arrangement of beams is same at different floors.
  • Columns & Foundations shall be specified by grid arrangement giving reference to the floor.
  • Beams, Slabs & Lintels, Tie Beams shall be numbered from left hand top corner.
  • Scales shall be so chosen to bring out the details clearly. No general recommendations can be given in this respect, although commonly used scales are given below as examples:

IS: 962: Architectural and Building Drawing

CIVIL ENGINEERING: IS: 962: Architectural and Building Drawing

IS: 962 deal with architectural and building drawing. IS:962 designate drawing sheet sizes into six different types i.e. A0, A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5. Surface area of basic size A0 is 1 m2. The surface area of two successive sizes is in ratio 1:2.



S.No Designated Trimmed Size Untrimmed Size
1
A0
841*1189
880*1280
2
A1
594*841
625*880
3
A2
420*594
450*625
4
A3
297*420
330*450
5
A4
210*297
240*330
6
A5
148*210
165*240
Layout of drawing

  •  General 

  Sufficient margins are left from the edges of finished drawings to facilitate filing and binding where necessary.

  • Margins 
Finished prints, which have been trimmed, will then be slightly less in size than the original drawings but not less then the frame or border line size of the drawings.

  • Title Block
Title block show the details of drawing like title of drawing, name of organization or firm, scale, date of drawing etc in definite manner. The title block is placed at the bottom right- hand corner of sheet.

ScaleName of office
DRN
TCD
RevisionsCHKD
ARCHITECT
DATE
DRG. NO.
Title of DrawingDrg. No.


OR





North direction
Notes (From top downwards)
Revisions (from bottom upwards)
Title of Drawing
Details given in the drawing
Scale
DRN
DATE
checked
Signature
Signature
Name
Name
Architect/ Engineer
Drawing No

Typical layout of title blocks

  • Additional information:
It is included to make the drawing complete. It contains:
a) Job no.
b)Material List:- it include item like schedule of reinforcement, quantity required etc. 
c)North point should be indicated.

  • Reproduction of Drawings:
Original drawings and tracings are normally preserved carefully and copies are used on sites. The blue print copy is developed by immersion in water. Only blue print can provide translucent copy from which further copies can be made.

  • Selection of scales for Drawings:
 It is estimated that drawing to scale 1: 1000 can be read to accuracy of 500 mm and drawing to 1: 400 scale can be read to accuracy of 200mm. If more than one detail drawn on different scale occurs on a sheet, the corresponding scale shall be shown under each relevant detail. Typical method of expressing numerical scales on drawing is 1 cm = 10mm or 1 : 1000 , 1 cm = 2.5 km or 1: 250000. Metric scales for architectural and building drawing is given in code IS: 962 on 12th page.

  • Line Work:
All lines should be dense, clean and black to produce good print. There are different types of lines examples center-lines, hidden lines etc 







What is use of SP:20?

This code is based on structural safety of buildings: Masonary Walls.


  • Masonary
An assemblage of masonary units properly bonded together with mortar.
  • Design by calculated masonary method 
The thickness of masonary for different spans, storey heights and openings given by Nomograms are worked out for three occupancies as given below:
S.NO. OCCUPANCY LIVE LOADING
a) Residential buildings 200 kg/m2
b) Office buildings 300 kg/m2
c) Office buildings 400 kg/m2

  • Structure of Nomograms
The Nomograms for thickness of brick wall consist of nine vertical lines. From left to right, the vertical lines represent:

  1. Basic stress: of Masonry depends on the crushing strength of masonry unit and mortar used.
  2. Storeys: In case of multi- storeyed buildings, the wall thickness at each floor is found by passing the line through the no. of storey above that section.
  3. Reference line 1: It fixes a point on the line for any combination of values for Basic stress and storey.
  4. Span point: Fourth line has a span point, through which all lines shall pass through for arriving at the thickness.
  5. Reference line 2: It fixes a point on the line for any combination of values for Basic stress and Storeys.
  6. Percentage of openings and thickness of walls for spans of 3m, 3.6m & 4.2m: The openings provided on the walls for windows, ventilators, doors etc are taken care of in the nomograms by this line.

What information is needed to start design of bridge as per IRC:5?

According to it, following information is needed before starting design of bridge:

  • Collection of the data:
  1. General data including maps, plans & topographic features.
  2. Index map showing location of bridge.
  3. Contour survey plan.
  4. Site Plan (showing all relevant details).
  5.  Cross- section of channel.
  6. Hydraulic data for particular bridge site selected.
  7. Geological data.
  8. Loading data.

  •  Determination of design discharge.
  • Determination of linear waterway and effective linear waterway.
  • Spacing and location of piers and abutments.
  • Vertical clearance.
  • Freeboard.
  • Obstruction and river training.
  • Determination of maximum depth of scour.
  • Culverts.
  • Kerbs.
  • Width of Roadway and foot-way.
  • Super elevation.
  • Drainage of roadway.
  • Expansions joints.
  • Bridge foundations.

Weight and Standard Size of Steel Plates



Weight and Standard Size of Steel Plates
Plates
Weight
Thickness (in mm)
(in kg/ sqm)
4.3
33.70
5
39.20
6
47.10
8
62.80
10
78.50
12
94.20
16
125.60
20
157.00
25
196.20
30
235.50

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